Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Cities as Complex Systems

"Cities have been treated as systems for fifty years but only in the last two decades has the focus changed from aggregate equilibrium systems to more evolving systems whose structure emerges from the bottom up.
Cities were first conceived as complex systems in the 1960's when architects and urban planners began to change their perceptions that cities be treated as ‘works of art’ to something much more akin to a functioning economic system that required social engineering."


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